The color wheel is a tool for understanding color and color relationships.
The most common color wheel is the twelve (12) hue wheel. A color wheel could have as few as six hues or as many as 24, 48, 96 or more.
最常见的色环是 12 色环。通常一个色环包含至少 6 种、多到 24、48、96 或更多种颜色。
There are three primary colors. They are the hues yellow, blue and red. These three colors are the hues that theory can be mixed to make all other colors. If you mix the three primary colors, in theory it would produce black.
色环中有三种原色。它们分别是红、黄、蓝。理论上这三种颜色可以混合出任何其它颜色。当你把这三种颜色混合到一起时，理论上会产生黑色。（译注：本文的三原色理论基于较传统的颜料消减型混合体系，有别于计算机领域常用的 RGB 光源叠加型三基色体系和 CMY 印刷消减型分色体系。延伸阅读： 原色 – 维基百科）
By mixing two primary hues together you create a secondary color. There are three secondary colors. They are the hues green, violet (purple) and orange. Orange from mixing red and yellow, violet (purple) from blue and red, and green from yellow and blue.
The third set of hues are known as tertiary or intermediate colors. These hues are made by mixing adjacent primary and secondary hues. The six tertiary or intermediate colors are yellow-green, blue-green, blue-violet, red-violet, red-orange, and yellow-orange.
Hue: A hue is the purest or brightest form of a color. Hues are colors that have not been mixed with white, gray, or black. The twelve colors around on the outermost part of the wheel are hues.
纯色：纯色是一种颜色最纯最亮的形态，是还没和白、灰或黑色进行混合时的形态。色环最外圈的 12 种颜色即代表了 12 种纯色。
Tint: The circle of colors next to the hues represent the tint of each hue. A tint is the hue mixed with white. The hue may be mixed with just a touch of white or with so much white that the hue is very faint.
Tone: The next circle of colors represent the tone of each hue. A tone is the hue mixed with true gray. The hue mixed with any amount of gray is considered a tone of the hue.
Shade: The inner most circle of colors represent the shade of each hue. A shade is the hue mixed with black. Just as with the tines, the hue may be mixed with just a touch of black or with so much black that you are.
Yellow shines with optimism, enlightenment, and happiness. Shades of golden yellow carry the promise of a positive future. Yellow will advance from surrounding colors and instill optimism and energy, as well as spark creative thoughts.
- Stimulates mental processes
- Stimulates the nervous system
- Activates memory
- Encourages communication
- During the tenth century in France, the doors of traitors and criminals were painted yellow.
- Yellow signifies “sadness” in Greece’s culture and “jealousy” in France’s culture.
- Yellow is psychologically the happiest color in the color spectrum.
- The comic book character Green Lantern was afraid of the color yellow.
- 75% of the pencils sold in the United States are painted yellow.
Green occupies more space in the spectrum visible to the human eye than most colors, and is second only to blue as a favorite color. Green is the pervasive color in the natural world, making it an ideal backdrop in interior design because we are so used to seeing it everywhere.
- Relaxes mentally, as well as physically
- Helps alleviate depression, nervousness, and anxiety
- Offers a sense of renewal, self-control, and harmony
- The solid green flag of Libya is currently the only national flag of a single color.
- There is a superstition that sewing with green thread on the eve of a fashion show brings bad luck to the design house.
- Green was the favorite color of George Washington, the first President of the United States.
- Green is the color used for night-vision goggles because the human eye is most sensitive to and able to discern the most shades of that color.
- NASCAR racers have shared a bias against the color green for decades. Reportedly, it began after a 1920 accident in Beverly Hills, California, that killed defending Indianapolis 500 champion Gaston Chevrolet. It was the first known racing accident in the United States to kill two drivers, and Chevrolet reportedly was driving a green car.
- 全美房车竞赛协会数十年来对绿色一直怀有偏见。据传，这种偏见始于 1920 年发生于加州比佛利山庄的一次事故，这次事故夺去了”Indianapolis 500″赛事的卫冕冠军 Gaston Chevrolet（加斯顿·雪佛兰）的生命。这是美国赛车运动有史以来首次造成两名车手丧生的意外事故，而当时雪佛兰驾驶的就是一辆绿色赛车。（译注：此话题可参阅此文《绿车不吉利？》。）
Blue is seen as trustworthy, dependable, and committed. The color of ocean and sky, blue is perceived as a constant in our lives. As the collective color of the spirit, it invokes rest and can cause the body to produce chemicals that are calming.
- Calms and sedates
- Aids intuition
- Blue is the least “gender specific” color, having equal appeal to both men and women.
- Blue is the favored color choice for toothbrushes.
- Owls are the only birds that can see the color blue.
- People are often more productive in blue rooms.
- Mosquito’s are attracted to the color blue twice as much as to any other color.
Purple embodies the balance of red’s stimulation and blue’s calm. With a sense of mystic and royal qualities, purple is a color often well liked by very creative or eccentric types and is the favorite color of adolescent girls.
- Calms the mind and nerves
- Offers a sense of spirituality
- Encourages creativity
- Purple was the royal color of the Caesars.
- Purple was the color of the first dye made by man.
- Purple is the color of Madison Square Garden and seating for VIP’s was once covered in purple.
- Purple is the color of the highest denomination = $5,000.
- During the Silver Age of comic books, those with purple on their covers sold better.
- 紫色是麦迪逊广场花园（纽约曼哈顿的一个大型室内运动场）的代表色，而且 VIP 专座就曾使用紫色覆盖。
- 紫色被用于最高面额的纸币（5000 美元）。
Brighter pinks are youthful, fun, and exciting while vibrant pinks have the same high energy as red; they are sensual and passionate without being too aggressive. Toning down the passion of red with the purity of white results in the softer pinks that are associated with romance and the blush of a young woman’s cheeks.
- Bright pinks, like the color red, stimulate energy and can increase the blood pressure, respiration, heartbeat, and pulse rate. They also encourage action and confidence.
- Pink has been used in prison holding cells to effectively reduce erratic behavior.
- In 1947, fashion designer Elsa Schiaparelli introduced the color “hot pink” to western fashion.
- Pink encourages friendliness while discouraging aggression and ill-will.
- Since the color pink is said to have a tranquilizing effect, sports teams sometimes use pink to paint the locker room used by opposing teams.
- Studies of the color pink suggest that male weightlifters seem to lose strength in pink rooms, while women weightlifters tend to become stronger around the color.
- Pastries taste better when they come out of pink boxes or served on pink plates (it only works with sweets) because pink makes us crave sugar.
- 1947 年，时装设计师 Elsa Schiaparelli 将”艳粉色”引入西方时尚圈。
Red has more personal associations than any other color. Recognized as a stimulant, red is inherently exciting and the amount of red is directly related to the level of energy perceived. Red draws attention and a keen use of red as an accent can immediately focus attention on a particular element.
- Increases enthusiasm
- Stimulates energy and can increase the blood pressure, respiration, heartbeat, and pulse rate
- Encourages action and confidence
- Provides a sense of protection from fears and anxiety
- Red is the highest arc of the rainbow.
- Red is the first color you lose sight of at twilight.
- The longest wavelength of light is red.
- Feng shui recommends painting the front door of a home red to invite prosperity to the residents.
- Bees can’t see the color red, but they can see all other bright colors. Red flowers are usually pollinated by birds, butterflies, bats, and wind, rather than bees.
Orange, a close relative of red, sparks more controversy than any other hue. There is usually strong positive or negative association to orange and true orange generally elicits a stronger “love it” or “hate it” response than other colors. Fun and flamboyant orange radiates warmth and energy.
- Stimulates activity
- Stimulates appetite
- Encourages socialization
- The interior dash lights on older model Suburu cars were orange.
- Orange is the color that means “high” in the color-coded threat system established by presidential order in March 2002.
- In the United States Army, orange is the color of the United States Army Signal Corps.
- Safety orange is a color used to set things apart from their surroundings.
- Agent Orange, an herbicide named after the color of its containers, was used in a systematic herbicidal program organized by the US military that ran from 1961 through 1971 in Vietnam.
- 一些老款的 Suburu 汽车的仪表盘灯光就是橙色的。
- 2002 年 3 月，由总统令确立的”威胁等级色彩代号”系统中，橙色代表”高”。
- “橙剂”是一种除草剂，得名于它容器的颜色。这种除草剂曾用于 1961 至 1971 年间美军在越南组织的一项系统的除草工程。
white projects purity, cleanliness, and neutrality. Doctors don white coats, brides traditionally wear white gowns, and a white picket fence surrounds a safe and happy home.
- Aids mental clarity
- Encourages us to clear clutter or obstacles
- Evokes purification of thoughts or actions
- Enables fresh beginnings
- A white flag is universally recognized as a symbol of truce.
- According to Pantone Inc., white is the best selling color for the classic American t-shirt.
- More shades of white are available commercially than any other color.
- White clothing typically becomes translucent when wet.
- The appearance of white in a dream is thought to represent happiness at home. White castles are a symbol of achievement, destiny perfectly fulfilled, and spiritual perfection.
- Originally, scientists wore beige coats. In the late 19th century, medical professionals chose white ones. The color white was chosen because of the idea of hope and expectations for healing and recovery that the physicians would bring.
- 据彩通公司称，美国传统 T 恤还是白色的最好卖。（译注：彩通公司是一家权威的色彩研究机构，该公司推出的彩通配色系统是印刷配色领域的事实标准。）
- 最初，科学家们通常穿着米色外套。到了 19 世纪晚期，医学专家们开始选择白色外套，因为他们心怀对健康事业信心和期望，这与临床医师们的目标一致。
Gray is the color of intellect, knowledge, and wisdom. It is perceived as long-lasting, classic, and often as sleek or refined. It is a color that is dignified, conservative, and carries authority. Gray is a perfect neutral, which is why designers often use it as a background color.
- Creams expectations
- The New York Times is sometimes called “Gray Lady”.
- Gray represents non-involvement, giving it a formal authority.
- Gray is associated with intellect and the brain is composed of “gray matter”.
- Gray is representative of pessimism.
- The human eye can distinguish about 500 shades of gray.
- 人类的眼睛可以区分大约 500 种不同明暗程度的灰色。
Black is authoritative and powerful; because black can evoke strong emotions, too much can be overwhelming. Black represents a lack of color, the primordial void, emptiness. It is a classic color for clothing, possibly because it makes the wearer appear thinner and more sophisticated.
- Makes one feel inconspicuous
- Provides a restful emptiness
- Is mysterious by evoking a sense of potential and possibility
- In England, taxi cabs are traditionally black.
- Black implies weight — people will think a black box weighs more than a white one.
- The color black is associated with sophistication and power – tuxedos, limousines, judge’s robes, and priests’ attire are all typically black.
- The color black is so widely regarded as sophisticated in fashion that the term “the new black” is often used to describe and give merit to a color trend.
- One old wives’ tale claims that if a woman is buried wearing the color black, she’ll come back to haunt the family.
The Colors of the Chakras
The chakras are related to the seven basic energy centers in the body. Each of the chakras correlates to a major nerve ganglia branching out from the spinal column. In addition the chakras are correlated to colors, sounds, body functions, and much more.
Violet (purple) is the color of the Crown chakra, also known as Sahasrara. This chakra is located at the top of the head. The Crown chakra is linked to the crown of the head, the nervous system and the brain, and is representative of pure thought.
Indigo: The color of the Brow or Third-Eye chakra, also known as Ajna. This chakra is located at the top of the head.
Blue: The color of the Throat chakra, also known as Visuddha. This chakra is located in the throat. It is linked to the throat, neck, hands, and arms. The Throat chakra is connected with speech and hearing and encourages spiritual communication.
Green: The color of the Heart chakra, also known as Anahata. This chakra is located at the center of the chest area and is linked to this entire area, the heart, lungs, circulatory system, and cardiac plexus.
Yellow: The color of the Solar Plexus chakra, also known as Manipura. This chakra is located in the stomach area and is linked to organs & muscular system in that area.
Orange: The color of the Sacral chakra, also known as Svadhisthana. This chakra is located beneath the naval close to the genitals The Sacral Chakra is linked to the sexual organs and reproductive system.
Red: The color or the Base or Root chakra, also known as Muladhara. This chakra is located at the base of the spine and allows us to be grounded and connect to the universal energies.
（译注：这一节就略过不译了。有兴趣的同学请阅读原文，并可参阅 查克拉 – 维基百科）
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